Definition, Functions, and Types of Network Protocols

definition functions and types of.

Definition, Functions, and Types of Network Protocols

Definition, Functions, and Types of Network Protocols

In a computer network, there is a rule called a protocol. Network protocols are formal standards and policies that consist of rules, procedures, and formats that define communication between two or more devices over a network. Network protocols govern the end-to-end processing of timely, secure, and managed data or network communications. This time the Admin will discuss the Definition, Types, and Functions of Network Protocols.

Understanding Network Protocol

Network protocols incorporate all the processes, requirements, and constraints of initiating and completing communications between computers, servers, routers, and other network-enabled devices. Network protocols must be authenticated and installed by the sender and receiver to ensure network/data communication and apply to software and hardware communicating on the network.

Network Protocol Functions

Of course, the existence of a network protocol can provide convenience for application developers and users (clients). Each protocol has a different function. Although in some cases, the functions of network protocols are similar to some degree. To be sure, each protocol will be interconnected and unified regularly. And performs its role to:

  1. As a transmission service.
  2. Controlling errors (Error correction).
  3. Recording addresses (Addressing).
  4. multiplexing.
  5. Set the flow control (Flow control).
  6. Separation and assembly.
  7. encapsulation.
  8. Arranged delivery.
  9. Order delivery.
  10. Control connection (Control connection).

Network Protocol Type

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer computer files between a client and a server on a computer network.

SSH (Secure Shell)

Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for securely operating network services over an insecure network. The best-known example of an application is for remote login to a computer system by a user.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard for transmitting electronic mail (email). First defined by RFC 821 in 1982, it was last updated in 2008 with the addition of SMTP extended by RFC 5321, which is the protocol in widespread use today.

DNS (Domain Name System/Service)

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or private networks.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the basis of data communication for the World Wide Web

POP3 (Post Office Protocol Version 3)

Post Office Protocol Version 3 is the protocol used by e-mail clients to retrieve messages from remote servers

IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)

In computing, the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is the Internet standard protocol used by email clients to retrieve email messages from email servers over a TCP/IP connection. IMAP is defined by RFC 3501.

HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure)

HTTPS (HTTP Secure) is an adaptation of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for secure communication over computer networks and is widely used on the Internet. In HTTPS, the communication protocol is encrypted by Transport Layer Security (TLS), or earlier, its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). The protocol is therefore also often referred to as HTTP over TLS, or HTTP over SSL.

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite. It stems from early networking implementations where it complements the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, this entire network is commonly referred to as TCP/IP. TCP provides reliable, ordered, and error-checked delivery of an octet stream between applications running on hosts communicating by IP networks.

Major Internet applications such as the World Wide Web, email, remote administration, and file transfer rely on TCP. Applications that do not require reliable data flow services can use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which provides a connectionless datagram service that emphasizes reduced latency over reliability.

UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

In computer networking, the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core members of the Internet protocol suite. This protocol was designed by David P. Reed in 1980 and officially defined in RFC 768. With UDP, computer applications can send messages, in this case, referred to as datagrams, to other hosts on the Internet Protocol (IP) network. Prior communication is not required to set up a communication channel or data path.

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a communication protocol used to find the link-layer address associated with a given IPv4 address, a critical function in Internet Protocol (IP) computer networks.

RARP (Reverse ARP)

Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is an obsolete computer networking protocol used by client computers to request an Internet Protocol (IPv4) address from a computer network, when all that is available is its link-layer or hardware address, such as a MAC. address.

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network management protocol used on TCP/IP networks in which the DHCP server dynamically assigns IP addresses and other network configuration parameters to each device on the network so that they can communicate with other IP networks.

MTP (Media Transfer Protocol)

Media Transfer Protocol (MTP) is an extension of the Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP) communication protocol that allows media files to be atomically transferred to and from portable devices. While PTP is designed to download photos from digital cameras.

The Media Transfer Protocol enables the transfer of music files on digital audio players and media files on portable media players, as well as personal information about personal digital assistants. MTP is an essential part of WMDRM10-PD, a digital rights management (DRM) service for the Windows Media platform.

SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol)

In computing, the SSH File Transfer Protocol (Secure File Transfer Protocol, or SFTP) is a network protocol that provides file access, file transfer, and file management over any reliable data stream. It was designed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as an extension of the Secure Shell (SSH) protocol version 2.0 to provide secure file transfer capabilities.

The IETF Internet Draft states that, although this protocol is described in the context of the SSH-2 protocol, it can be used in a number of different applications, such as secure file transfer via Transport Layer Security (TLS) and information management transfer in VPN applications. This protocol assumes that it is run over a secure channel, such as SSH, that the server has authenticated the client, and that the client's user identity is available for the protocol.

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)

Transport Layer Security (TLS) – and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which is now banned from use – is a cryptographic protocol that provides secure communications over computer networks. Several versions of the protocol find widespread use in applications such as web browsing, email, Internet fax, instant messaging, and voice over IP (VoIP). Websites may use TLS to secure all communications between their servers and web browsers.

TLS (Transport Layer Security)

Transport Layer Security (TLS) – and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which is now banned from use – is a cryptographic protocol that provides secure communications over computer networks.

Several versions of the protocol find widespread use in applications such as web browsing, email, Internet fax, instant messaging, and voice over IP (VoIP). Websites may use TLS to secure all communications between their servers and web browsers.

NTP (Network Time Protocol)

Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a network protocol for clock synchronization between computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks. Operating since before 1985, NTP is one of the oldest Internet protocols in use today. NTP was designed by David L. Mills of the University of Delaware.

PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)

In computer networking, Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a data layer (layer 2) communication protocol used to establish a direct connection between two nodes. It connects two routers directly with no hosts or other network devices in between. It can provide connection authentication, transmission encryption, and compression.

NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol)

Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) is an application protocol used to transport Usenet news articles (netnews) between news servers and to read and post articles by end-user client applications.

Brian's Office of the University of California, San Diego and Phil Lapsley of the University of California, Berkeley wrote RFC 977, the specification for the Network News Transfer Protocol, in March 1986. Other contributors include Stan O. Barber of Baylor College of Medicine and Erik Fair of Apple Computers.

QOTD (Quote of the Day)

The Quote of the Day (QOTD) service is a member of the Internet protocol suite, defined in RFC 865. As indicated there, the concept of QOTD predates the specification, when QOTD is used by mainframe sysadmins to broadcast daily quotes on request by a user. It was later formally codified both for the former purpose and for testing and measurement purposes in RFC 865.

ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a supporting protocol in the Internet protocol suite. It is used by network devices, including routers, to send error messages and operational information indicating, for example, that the requested service is unavailable or that the host or router is unreachable.

IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol)

Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is a communication protocol used by adjacent hosts and routers on an IPv4 network to establish multicast group membership. IGMP is an integral part of IP multicast.


Telnet is a set of rules designed to connect one system to another. The process of connecting here is referred to as remote login. The system requesting the connection is the local computer, and the system receiving the connection is the remote computer.


Gopher is a set of rules applied to find, retrieve and display documents from isolated sites. Gopher also works on the client/server principle.

How Do Network Protocols Work?

Network protocols break down larger processes into separate and narrowly defined functions and tasks at each network level. In the standard model, known as the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, one or more network protocols regulate activity at each layer in a telecommunications exchange.

A set of network protocols that work together is called a set of protocols. TCP/IP includes various protocols at the layers, such as data, network, transport, and application layers, working together to enable Internet connectivity. This includes:

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which uses a set of rules to exchange messages with other Internet points at the information packet level.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which acts as an alternative communication protocol to TCP and is used to establish low-latency and loss-tolerant connections between applications and the Internet.

Internet Protocol (IP), which uses a set of rules to send and receive messages at the Internet address level.

Additional network protocols include the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and File Transfer Protocol (FTP), each of which has defined a set of rules for exchanging and displaying information.

Every packet sent and received over the network contains binary data. Most protocols will add a header at the beginning of each packet to store information about the sender and destination of the message.

Some protocols may also include a footnote at the end with additional information. Network protocols process these headers and footers as part of the data moving between devices to identify messages of their own type.

Network Protocol Usage

Suppose there is a modern operating system containing built-in software services that implement support for several network protocols. Applications such as web browsers contain software libraries that support the high-level protocols required for the application to function. For some TCP/IP protocols and low-level routing, support is implemented in live hardware (silicon chipsets) to improve performance.

Every packet sent and received over the network contains binary data (ones and zeros that encode the contents of each message). Most protocols add a small header at the beginning of each packet to store information about the sender of the message and its intended destination. Some protocols also add a footer note at the end.

Each network protocol has the ability to identify messages of its own type and process headers and footers as part of moving data between devices. A group of network protocols that work together at higher and lower levels is often called a protocol family.

Network Protocol Vulnerabilities

One of the main vulnerabilities found in network protocols is that they are not designed for security. Their lack of protection can sometimes allow malicious attacks, such as eavesdropping and cache poisoning to affect the system.

The most common attack on network protocols is false route advertisements, causing traffic to pass through compromised hosts instead of the appropriate ones. Network protocol analysis was designed and installed in response to this vulnerability. Network protocol analysis protects systems against malicious activity by complementing firewalls, anti-virus programs, and anti-spyware software.


A network protocol is a defined set of rules that define how to format, send and receive data so that computer network devices, from servers and routers to endpoints, can communicate regardless of differences in infrastructure, design, or underlying standards.

Hopefully, this article about the Definition, Functions, and Types of Network Protocols, gives you a little insight. Also, read an article about Delete History Tracks on Windows with Registry Editor that you may need to know. Thank you.

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