30+ Differences in C And C++ Bahasa

30 differences in c and c plus lang.

C and C++ are the two oldest programming languages ​​that still exist and are used today. Of course, both programming languages ​​have their own advantages and disadvantages.

To give you an overview of the differences between C and C++ languages, C++ is an enhanced version of the C programming language with additional object-oriented features. C has been the motivation behind the birth of the C++ language. Not only C++ but many high-level programming languages ​​that are currently popular such as Java, PHP, and Python.


Differences in C and C++ Languages

Before going deeper into the differences between C and C++, let's first take a look at the two languages.

What is C Language?

Known as the Father of Modern Programming, C first appeared in 1972 and was developed by Dennis Ritchie while working at Bells Labs. Although it was originally created to create utilities that could run on the Unix platform, it is now one of the most widely used programming languages ​​in the world.

C is a procedural programming language that works at the lowest level of abstraction and therefore a systems programming language. It is compiled, lightweight, and offers manual memory management.

The strength of the C programming language lies in its performance and the ability to be used in coding for a wide variety of platforms. Hence, programming languages ​​can be used for coding almost anything.

Although we currently have specializations and a wide variety of programming languages ​​to choose from, C was a great invention during its infancy and early years. Its level of versatility has been unmatched over the years.


What is C++ Language?

Designed by Bjarne Stroustrup, C++ first appeared in 1985 and is considered the best child prodigy of C. Bjarne started working on programming languages ​​while working at Bell Labs in 1979. He wanted to develop extensions to the C programming language that was both more efficient and flexible than C.

C++ provides support for object-oriented programming. It offers a low level of abstraction and requires manual memory management. Its programming language is comparable to C, lightweight, and compiled. It is capable of developing applications for various platforms.

The C++ programming language has almost everything C has to offer but in a better way. Like its original inspiration, the C and C++ programming languages ​​have and continue to influence many high-level programming languages, such as C# and Java.


Comparison Between C Vs C++

After you know the explanation of the C and C++ programming languages. Now let's see the difference between C and C++

Application Development Area

C is a great option for embedded devices and system-level code. On the other hand, C++ is a top choice for developing games, networking, and server-side applications. It's also a great choice for device driver development.

C++'s authority lies in performance and speed. While C also offers these two qualities, C++ takes it one step further.

Approach

Being a procedure-oriented (structure-oriented) programming language, C follows a top-down approach. It begins with a high-level design and ends with a low-level design.

In the top-down approach, the main() function is written first and all sub-functions are called from the main() function. After that, the sub-functions are written as needed.

The C++ programming language is completely opposite to C in this aspect because, like all object-oriented programming languages, it follows a bottom-up approach.

In contrast to the top-down approach, the bottom-up approach starts with a low-level design and ends with a high-level design. In the bottom-up approach, the code is developed for the module and after that, the module is integrated with the main() function.

Both types of approaches are involved in software development and not in program execution. Today, software design involves a combination of both approaches to get the best of both worlds.


Compatibility With Each Other

C is a subset of C++. Therefore, C++ is a superset of C. Although C++ can run most C code, C compilers cannot run C++ code.


Compatibility With Other Programming Languages

The C++ programming language provides compatibility with other common programming languages. On the other hand, however, there is no such feature offered by the C programming language.


Data Security, Encapsulation, And Information Concealment

Because data and functions are treated as distinct entities in the C programming language, there is no support for encapsulation. C++ code binds data and functions together in an object and, therefore, supports encapsulation, which, in turn, offers information hiding.

Another major difference between the C and C++ programming languages ​​is on the basis of data security. In the C programming language, data is not as secure as the C++ language.


Variable

Because it is an object-oriented programming language, C++ is able to hide variables in a class while only offering a function interface. Modifiers can be used for class members so that data cannot be accessed by external users.

There is no such concept in the C programming language. As a result, all variables are open and therefore vulnerable to be accessed by some malicious code.

Variables must also be declared at the beginning of a function in a C program. Whereas in C++, a variable can be declared anywhere in a function.

The C programming language allows multiple declarations to be made of global variables. This is not the case in C++, which does not allow multiple declarations of global variables.


Enumeration

Declaring enumerations is possible in C. However, the enumeration constants declared are of type integer. In this respect, declaring an enumeration is similar to declaring a number of integer constants. Plus, there is no additional type of safety.

In the C++ programming language, enumerations are a different type. This means that it is not possible to assign an integer type value to a variable of the enumeration type unless an explicit conversion is used.

However, it is possible to assign the value of the enumeration type to several variables of the integer type. This is because the enumeration type allows implicit conversions via integral promotion. The static checker can easily detect these implicit conversions and issue warnings if needed.


String Usage

Another important difference between the security measures offered by C and C++ lies in the use of strings. The character [] represents a string literal in C. When passed to some external function, there's a good chance that the function modifies the original string. To make matters worse, there's no way to prevent such a thing from happening.

In contrast, C++ has a variable type called string. Because this type of variable is immutable, it cannot be changed in its original location.


Data Type

C supports both built-in and primitive data types. In contrast, C++ provides support for user-defined data types in addition to the primitive and built-in data types. In addition, C++ has Boolean and String as the default data types. There is no such built-in data type in C programming language.


Default Header Files

Another difference that can be made between C and C++ is based on the default header file used. While C uses stdio.h as the default header file, C++ uses iostream.h as the default header file.


Ease of Coding

C is described as a straightforward programming language. Therefore, it is important to tell programs everything that needs to be done. As an extension of C, C++ allows for very controlled object-oriented code. Simply put, if C is easy then C++ is easier.


Exception Handling aka Error Handling

C++ offers an easy way of handling exceptions via Try and Catch blocks. Exceptions are meant to find “difficult” errors, which can lead to incorrect code.

Unlike C++, exception handling in C needs to be managed using other functions. This is because the programming language does not provide support for exception handling.

Conventionally, a programmer who is coding in C needs to prevent errors from happening beforehand. Therefore, it is necessary to test the return values ​​of the functions. In the worst case where errors are inevitable, the programmer should log the errors and terminate the program properly.


File Extension

All C programs are saved with the .c extension, while ordinary C++ programs are saved with the .cpp extension


Overloading Function

One of the advanced features brought by the C++ programming language is function overloading, a form of polymorphism. This allows functions with the same name to be defined for different purposes. Overloaded functions have the same name even though the parameters are different.

For example, the add() function can be defined in two ways. While one can count the number of integer values, other versions can concatenate two (or more) strings. Unlike C++, the C programming language does not provide support for function overloading.


Functions With Default Arguments

Although C++ allows the use of functions with default arguments, C does not. If such a function is called passing arguments, then those arguments are used by the function.


GUI Programming

To enable GUI (Graphical User Interface) programming, C has GTK tools. C++ supports Qt tools to achieve the same.


Inheritance

Inheritance is the ability of a class to acquire properties and characteristics from other classes. Because this is one of the important properties of OOPS, no such feature is available in the C programming language.

A class that inherits properties from another class is called a child class. It may also be known as a child or subclass. A class whose properties are inherited by a subclass is known as a base class. It is also known as a parent or superclass.


Inline Function

C utilizes Macro functions as a means for optimization techniques, especially to reduce overall execution time. C++, on the other hand, uses inline functions to optimize written code.

Functions that are instructed as inline functions to the compiler allow it to override function definitions wherever they are called. The C++ compiler replaces inline function definitions at compile time instead of referencing function definitions at runtime.

One important thing to note about inlining in C++ is that it is a kind of suggestion made to the compiler. If the function is too large then the compiler can ignore the inline request and run it as a normal function.


Input And Output Operation

The C programming language uses scanf() and printf() for input and output, in their respective order, operations. In contrast, C++ has cin to perform input operations and cout to perform output-related operations.


Keyword Count

C++ has a total of 52 reserved keywords whereas C has only 32 keywords in total.


Mapping

The C programming language has a very complicated mapping between data and functions. In C++, the mapping between data and functions can be easily created through classes and objects.


Memory Management

Although C and C++ require manual memory management, the way to achieve this is different. C offers a calloc() function and malloc() for dynamic memory allocation and a free() function for memory deallocation.

In C++, the new operator is used for dynamic memory allocation while the delete operator is there to complete the memory allocation.


Namespace

Namespaces provide the ability to group named entities into a narrower scope, called a namespace scope. Without a namespace, these named entities would have global scope. In other words, a namespace is a declarative region that provides scope for the identifiers within it.

A simple reason for using namespaces is to organize program elements into distinct logical scopes that are referenced by names. Although C++ supports this feature, it is not available from the C programming language.

C++ allows multiple namespace blocks to share the same name. All declarations made within that block are declared in a named scope. Each namespace definition begins with the namespace keyword followed by the namespace name. The general syntax is:

using namespace multiple names;

 {

  // code placed here

 }

Some important things to remember about using namespaces in C++ are:

  • Namespace declarations must not have access specifiers
  • Nested namespace declarations in other namespace declarations can also be done
  • Namespace declarations can only be made in global scope
  • Namespace definitions can be broken down into units
  • No need to add a semicolon (;) after the closing parenthesis of the namespace definition


Operator Overloading

While operator overloading is not possible in the C programming language, C++ supports the idea. Simply put, it is a feature that allows changing how operators work for user-defined types.

For basic types, namely int, double, float, the meaning of an operator is always the same. For user-defined types, however, it is possible to redefine how operators work.

Special operator functions need to be defined in the class to overload operators. Operator overloading is widely used by programmers to make programs more intuitive.


Polymorphism

One important feature of object-oriented programming is polymorphism. Therefore, C++ supports it. Polymorphism in C++ means that a call to a member function will result in the execution of a different function based on the type of object that is called the function.

In C++, polymorphism usually occurs when there is a class hierarchy, and the same is related through inheritance.

There is no built-in support for polymorphism in C like C++. However, there are some design patterns, such as function pointers, that can offer logical equivalents to dynamic dispatch.


Program Subdivision

Any C++ program can be divided into classes and objects. AC programs, on the other hand, can be divided into modules and procedures.


Programming Style

The C programming language follows a procedural programming style, which means it does not support the concepts of classes and objects. C++, on the other hand, is a programming language that supports multi-paradigm understanding.

Being a multi-paradigm programming language allows C++ to provide support for both procedural and object-oriented programming styles. Although it is truly object-oriented, supporting procedural programming makes C++ a hybrid programming language.

Object-oriented means that C++ increases productivity as well as code organization. Both qualities are important when developing complex applications. The object-oriented nature of C++ makes it a top choice for developing server-side software and fast applications.

C places emphasis on the steps or procedures that are followed to solve a particular problem. C++, on the other hand, mainly emphasizes objects. This is because it has a higher level of abstraction than the C programming language.


Reference Variables

Although C++ provides support for reference variables, C does not. Reference variables are another name for an existing variable. Once a reference has been initialized for a variable, the variable name, and reference variables can be used to refer to the variable.


Scope

C is a general-purpose programming language with more emphasis on systems programming. Therefore, it is great for embedded systems. On the other hand, C++ is a pure general-purpose programming language, making it a top choice for many fields of application development.


main() Function

C allows calling the main() function via another function used in the code. In C++, it is not possible to call the main() function via another function.


Use of Functions in Structures

C++ supports the use of functions in structures. A structure is very similar to a class in some aspects. However, the main difference between the two is in terms of the default access level.

Any functionality supported by a class is also supported by a struct. Methods are used in the same way for structures as they are used for classes. However, it is not possible to define functions within structures in the C programming language.


Virtual And Friend Function

Every function that is a member function and declared in the base class is replaced with a derived class called a virtual function. The main purpose of a virtual function is to achieve runtime polymorphism. To create a virtual function, the keyword virtual is used.

A friend function that belongs to a class is one that is defined outside its scope but has the privilege of accessing all protected and private members of the class. Although the prototype friend function appears in the class definition, it is not a member function.

In addition to functions, friend functions can be in the form of function templates, member functions, classes, or class templates. To make a function a friend function, the prototype function in the class definition begins with the friend keyword. C has neither friend functions nor virtual, while C++ has both.


C Vs C++: When And Which To Choose?

You need to choose C over C++ when,

  • Very small coding system (resulting in slightly less overhead compared to using C++)
  • Applications must be very stable (Immeasurable code and control results by removing C++ abstractions)
  • You do not have a C++ compiler on the platform of choice for application development

You should choose C++ over C when,

  • Develop applications that work directly with computer hardware
  • Develop applications related to application development
  • This project aims for very low-level processing


Summary

That's the difference between C and C++ languages. In essence, C++ is a programming language designed as a refinement of the C language. So what C language can do, C++ can certainly do.

Hopefully, this article about 30+ Differences in C And C++ Language, gives you a little insight. Also, read an article about 4 Myths And Misconceptions About RAM You Still Trust that you may need to know. Thank you.

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